What Does Driving Really Cost?
[Note: these are 2002 numbers...all of this is even more extreme now.]
What does it cost for you to drive your most common round trip? If your answer is close to the cost of gas, you're being taken for a ride. When I carpool the 20 mile round trip from our house to town, people are stunned when I offer them the ten bucks I saved by not driving my own car. Most people think the cost of driving is the cost of gas. What a boon to the
auto industry...people think their product costs them 85% less to use than it
does! (gas = 7.7¢ a mile, driving costs 52.3¢ per mile, or $5500-$7000
per year according to the AAA).
Do you think people would drive less if they knew what it really cost them?
We certainly do.
Between my wife and I, by driving less than half as much as the average American,
use of carpooling, public transport, and bicycles, and not owning cars until
later in life we saved approximately $180,000 by 2002.
This is almost exactly what it cost to pay off our house in Santa Barbara
($140,000 in 1992 plus ten years interest). If we'd both got expensive cars
instead of average (not unusual in this town) we'd have spent a quarter of a
million dollars between us in our combined 48 driving years.
Can't believe it? Check the calcs
and references below.
If this were the end of the story, that would be bad enough. The
direct out of pocket costs are just the tip of a still greater iceberg:
The external environmental and societal costs of driving in the United States include:
- 40,000 deaths a year. It is still the leading cause of death for Americans age 2-24. (Accident Facts, National Safety Council, 1995) A 16-year old in the suburbs is more likely to die in a car crash than his urban counterpart is in a violent crime. According to the Annual Review of Public Health: "At current mortality rates, a baby born today has roughly one chance in seventy of ultimately dying in a traffic crash." Driving a car is the most dangerous thing any of us do.
- Police, fire, ambulance; road construction & maintenance; other local
- Property taxes lost from land cleared for freeways
- Air, water, land pollution
- Noise, vibration damage to structures
- Global climate change
- Petroleum supply line policing, security
- Petroleum production subsidies
- Trade deficit, infrastructure deficit
- Sprawl, loss of transportation options
- Uncompensated auto accidents
- Traffic congestion
under federal medical assistance programs, are a result of one third of injuries caused by car crashes, according to the US DOT.
- Cost to families
from traffic fatalities— $350 billion annually (according to Federal Highway Administration estimates)
- $50 billion of the US defense budget (2002) used to defend oil fields and shipping
lanes from the Middle East, Nigeria, and Venezuela. (None of this bill is paid
for through road use fees such as tolls or gasoline surcharges, or by the
companies that most directly benefit, but instead comes from general funds
like income and payroll taxes.)
- Up to 40% of the activities of police, and 15% of that
of emergency and fire departments spent on traffic management, theft,
parking enforcement, and accident response, at the expense of other emergencies
like violent crime, arson, or industrial accidents
- Health costs of air pollution estimated at a minimum of $10 billion a year, much of which comes from
cars, trucks, and SUVs (which pollute the most), (American Lung Association).
- Economic losses of $100 billion annually from traffic congestion- a function
of lost productivity, wasted fuel, and unnecessary wear and tear on vehicles
through stop and go driving (US General Accounting Office)
- Limited mobility for people who are unable to drive—the elderly, handicapped,
and children. Sprawl can condemn senior citizens to their home. Kids cannot
ride their bikes or walk to school or to visit friends, effectively turning
parents into chauffeurs.
- Compromise to national security. Transportation
consumes 1/3 of all US energy used annually and 2/3 of its oil, half of which
is imported. Oil alone is 60% of the US trade deficit, and auto and auto parts
account for 2/3 of our trade deficit with Japan.
- An extreme amount of paved land surface, which in the US is now roughly equivalent to
an area the size of the state of Georgia.
- Damage caused to bodies of water from crankcase drips, oil
spills, and the wash of toxic crud from roads, driveways, and parking lots
- Crops stunted by air pollution (valued annually at $10 billion)
- Fragmentation of wildlife and ecosystems from 220,000
miles of roads and highways (Alan Durning, The Car and the City)
- Cars (and especially sport utility vehicles) are the
US's primary contributor of greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, which
are creating a double glaze around the planet, almost certainly warming the
global temperature, and probably wreaking havoc on our climate and food production
- Ground level ozone and smog that is both ugly and unhealthy, and stunts the growth of trees, which are our source of oxygen and a hedge
against global warming.
- Cars are burning a staggering amount of fossil vegetation: 98
tons of plants per gallon. This is hard to assign a dollar value to, but
it sure puts the "sustainability" of driving this much in perspective.
- During the full span of the baby boom generation, 1950 to 2025, two thirds
of US petroleum reserves will be consumed, leaving the most inaccessible 1/6
of reserves for all future generations (the easiest 1/6 was used between the
discovery of petroleum and 1950).
* Unless otherwise specified, these numbers come from,
The Going Rate: What It Really Costs to Drive, by James J. McKenzie,
Roger C. Dower, and Donald Chen. Statistics come from studies done by the
Cato Institute, The Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, The
Urban Institute, The Brookings Institution, and the National Research Council.
More info on external costs from Victoria
Transport Policy Institute
|Average American's car costs
||Years I could've owned a car (I refused my parent's
offer of a gift of their Pinto station wagon at sixteen)
||What the average American would've spent in my
||My actual annual costs (approximate)
||Years I've owned a car (I've owned one car, a
1978 Toyota pickup which I bought for $2000 when I was 24)
Note: my 1978 truck was "totaled" by my wife-to-be twelve years
ago. The insurance company gave me $1500 for it. The darn thing still is in
great mechanical condition and I've had multiple offers to buy it out from underneath
me for $500. Thus, In 13 years of car ownership, I've spent ZERO on depreciation.
Following consumer reports recommendations to average buying behavior, I would've
lost almost $60,000 in depreciation.
|Lynn's car costs
||If she spent the average amount per year
||What she did spend
||What she saved
||Total household savings thus far
||Savings compared to moderately expensive cars
($7000 instead of $5500 a year)
Average costs taken from American
Automobile Association and Victoria
Transport Policy Institute, our costs extrapolated from what records we
How Low-Carbon Can You Go: The Transportation Emissions Ranking
by the Sightline Insitute
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Copyright © Art Ludwig 1997